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Alan Darvill
Director of the CCRC

Regents Professor of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, and Plant Biology;


Structure and function of the non-cellulosic polysaccharides of plant primary cell walls.

E-mail: adarvill@ccrc.uga.edu
Telephone: 706-542-4411
Fax: 706-542-4412

Short Biography
Research Interests
Publications

Talks

Short Biography:
Alan Darvill received his B.S. in plant biology in 1973 from Wolverhampton Polytechnic (England) and his Ph.D. in plant physiology in 1976 from the Aberystwyth (Wales). He founded the CCRC with Dr. Peter Albersheim in September 1985. Dr. Darvill is the Director of the CCRC, Director of the Department of Energy (DOE)-funded Center for Plant and Microbial Complex Carbohydrates, and is University of Georgia lead in the DOE-funded BioEnergy Science Center. In 2003, Dr. Darvill was appointed Regents Professor of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and Senior Faculty Fellow. He was elected chairman for 1994-95 of the Carbohydrate Division of the American Chemical Society, and was appointed a member in 1993 and chairman in 1996 of the Martin Gibbs Medal Committee of the American Society of Plant Physiologists. He served on the editorial boards of Glycobiology and of the Plant Journal for Cell and Molecular Biology. Dr. Darvill received the Outstanding Faculty Award of the UGA Chapter of the Golden Key National Honor Society in 1995. In 2008, he was appointed to the University of Georgia Research Foundation Board, and in 2010 was named Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Full publications: 208.

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Research Interests:
Characterization of the non-cellulosic polysaccharides that constitute the primary cell walls of plants has been a major research goal of our laboratory for many years. We have emphasized the structural studies of five major non-cellulosic polysaccharides, namely, the pectic polysaccharides rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I), rhamnogalacturonan II (RG-II), and homogalacturonan, and the hemicellulosic polysaccharides xyloglucan and arabinoxylan. We have characterized the structures of these polysaccharides isolated from angiosperm and gymnosperm cell walls. We have come to realize that these polysaccharides are the predominant non-cellulosic polysaccharides of cell walls. These polysaccharides, although varying in quantity in the cell walls of angiosperms and gymnosperms, are structurally conserved, indicating their importance in primary cell wall structure and function.

These cell wall, non-cellulosic polysaccharides represent a group of carbohydrates with considerable structural complexity that offer a major challenge to those wishing to decipher their structures. RG-II, for example, is probably the most structurally complex polysaccharide so far isolated from nature. RG-II was first discovered to be a component of the primary cell walls of plants by our laboratory in 1978 and has now been found in the walls of angiosperms, gymnosperms, lycophytes, and pteridophytes. RG-II is a small polysaccharide consisting of approximately 30 glycosyl residues. However, this polysaccharide contains at least 12 different glycosyl residues linked together in over 20 different glycosyl linkages. RG-II is characterized by several unusual sugar components including 2-O-methyl fucose, 2-O-methyl xylose, apiose, 3-C-carboxy 5-deoxy-L-xylose (aceric acid), 3-deoxy-D-manno-2-octulosonic acid (KDO), and 3-deoxy-D-lyxo-2-heptulosaric acid (DHA). Both aceric acid and DHA have been found in no natural source other than RG-II.

We have characterized oligosaccharide fragments of RG-II that contain 28 of the possible 30 glycosyl residues of this pectic polysaccharide. We have obtained evidence that the backbone of RG-II consists of seven a-1,4-linked galactosyluronic acid residues to which two disaccharide, one heptasaccharide, and one octasaccharide side chains are attached. These side chains are attached to the backbone via the acid labile ketosidic and glycosidic linkages of KDO, DHA, and apiose. The demonstration that RG-II exists in primary walls as a dimer that is covalently cross-linked by a borate diester was a major advance in our studies of this polysaccharide. Dimer formation results in the cross-linking of the two homogalacturonan chains upon which the RG-II molecules are constructed and is required for the formation of a three dimensional pectic network "in muro" (Annual Review of Plant Biology, 2004, 55:109-139).

Research in our laboratory continues to emphasize the structural characterization of the non-cellulosic polysaccharides of cell walls. The availability of cell wall mutants is assisting us in these structural studies. Structural analysis is accomplished by release of polysaccharides from cell walls and generation of defined polysaccharide fragments with purified enzymes or chemical treatments, chromatographic purification of the oligo- and polysaccharides, chemical structural characterization techniques, and a combination of several analytical techniques including gas-liquid chromatography, liquid chromatography, gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, and 1H- and 13C-NMR spectroscopy.

We are also collaborating with Dr. Michael Hahn in the production of monoclonal antibodies to cell wall polysaccharides and the oligosaccharides derived from these polysaccharides. These antibodies will be used in both purification of oligosaccharides and, more importantly, to begin to decipher the arrangement and location of the polysaccharides within the primary cell wall using monoclonal labeling of specific epitopes on the wall polysaccharides.

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Publications: Author's Last Name: Darvill

Journal Articles
Book Chapters are listed at the bottom of this page.

S Neelamegham, K Aoki-Kinoshita, E Bolton, M Frank, F Lisacek, T Lutteke, N O'Boyle, NH Packer, P Stanley, P Toukach, A Varki, RJ Woods, A Darvill, A Dell, B Henrissat, C Bertozzi, G Hart, H Narimatsu, H Freeze, I Yamada, J Paulson, J Prestegard, J Marth, JFG Vliegenthart, M Etzler, M Aebi, M Kanehisa, N Taniguchi, N Edwards, P Rudd, P Seeberger, R Mazumder, R Ranzinger, R Cummings, R Schnaar, S Perez, S Kornfeld, T Kinoshita, W York, Y Knirel, SD Grp. 2019. Updates to the Symbol Nomenclature for Glycans guidelines. Glycobiology Aug 20; 29(9): 620-624. PMID:31184695

Y. Kong, M.J. Pena, L. Renna, U. Avci, S. Pattathil, S.T. Tuomivaara, X. Li, W.-D. Reiter, F. Brandizzi, M.G. Hahn, A.G. Darvill, W.S. York, M.A. O'Neill. 2015. Galactose-depleted xyloglucan is dysfunctional and leads to dwarfism in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 167: 1296-1306. PMID:25673778

A Varki, RD Cummings, M Aebi, NH Packer, PH Seeberger, JD Esko, P Stanley, GJ Hart, A Darvill, T Kinoshita, JH Prestegard, RL Schnaar, HH Freeze, JD Marth, CR Bertozzi, ME Etzler, M Frank, JF Vliegenthart, T Lutteke, S Perez, E Bolton, P Rudd, J Paulson, M Kanehisa, P Toukach, KF Aoki-Kinoshita, A Dell, H Narimatsu, W York, N Taniguchi, S Kornfeld. 2015. Symbol Nomenclature for Graphical Representations of Glycans. Glycobiology 25: 1323-1324. PMID:26543186

L. Tan, S. Eberhard, S. Pattathil, C. Warder, J. Glushka, C. Yuan, Z. Hao, X. Zhu, U. Avci, J.S. Miller, D. Baldwin, C. Pham, R. Orlando, A. Darvill, M.G. Hahn, M. Kieliszewski, D. Mohnen. 2013. An Arabidopsis cell wall proteoglycan consists of pectin and arabinoxylan covalently linked to an arabinogalactan protein. DOI 10.1105/tpc.112.107334. Plant Cell 25(1): 270-287.

L Tan, S Eberhard, S Pattathil, C Warder, J Glushka, C Yuan, Z Hao, X Zhu, U Avci, JS Miller, D Baldwin, C Pham, R Orlando, A Darvill, MG Hahn, M Kielszewski, D Mohnen. 2013. An Arabidopsis cell wall proteoglycan consists of pectin and arabinoxylan covalently linked to an arbinogalactan protein. Plant Cell 25(1): 270-287. PMID:23371948

A. Kulkarni, M.J. Pena, U. Avci, K. Mazumder, B. Urbanowicz, S. Pattathil, Y. Yin, M.A. ONeill, A.W. Roberts, M.G. Hahn, Y. Xu, A.G. Darvill, W.A. York. 2012. The ability of land plants to synthesize glucoronoxylans predates the evolution of tracheophytes. Glycobiology 22: 439-451. PMID:22048859

G. Gutierrez-Sanchez, J.A. Atwood, K.V.S. Kolli, A. Darvill, S. Roussos, C. Augur. 2012. Initial proteome analysis of caffeine induced proteins in using two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis. Appl Biochem Biotechnol In press.

B.R. Urbanowicz, M.J. Pena, S. Ratnaparkhe, U. Avci, J. Backe, H.F. Steet, M. Foston, H. Li, M.A. O'Neill, A.J. Ragauskas, A.G. Darvill, C. Wyman, H.J. Gilbert, W.S. York. 2012. 4-O-Methylation of glucuronic acid in Arabidopsis glucuronoxylan is catalyzed by a domain of unknown function family 579 protein. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109: 14253-14258. PMID:22893684

A.D. Harper, S.H. Stalnaker, L. Wells, A. Darvill, R. Thornburg, W.S. York. 2010. Interaction of Nectarin 4 with a fungal protein triggers a microbial surveillance and defense mechanism in nectar. Phytochemistry 71: 1963-1969. PMID:20970816

M.J. Pena, A.G. Darvill, S. Eberhard, W.S. York, M.A. ONeill. 2008. Moss and liverwort xyloglucans contain galacturonic acid and are structurally distinct from the xyloglucans synthesized by horn. Glycobiology 18: 891-904. PMID:18703646

C. Lee, M.A. O'Neill, Y. Tsumuraya, A.G. Darvill, Z.H. Ye. 2007. The irregular xylem9 mutant is deficient in xylan xylosyltransferase activity. Plant Cell Physiol. 48: 1624-1634. PMID:17938130

M.J. Pena, R. Zhong, G.K. Zhou, E.A. Richardson, M.A. ONeill, A.G. Darvill, W.S. York, Z.H. Ye. 2007. Arabidopsis irregulat xylem8 and irregular xylem9: implications for the complexity of glucuronoxylan biosynthesis. Plant Cell 19: 549-563. PMID:17322407

Z-H. Ye, W.S. York, A.G. Darvill. 2006. Important new players in secondary wall synthesis. Trends Plant Sci. 11: 162-164. PMID:16537114

S.C. Wu, J.E. Halley, C. Luttig, L.J. Fernekes, G. Gutierrez-Sanchez, A.G. Darvill, P. Albersheim. 2006. Identification of an endo-beta-1,4,D-xylanase from Magnaporthe grisea by gene knockout analysis, purification, and heterologous expression. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 72: 986-993. PMID:16461639

M. Hoffman, Z. Jia, M.J. Pena, M. Cash, A. Harper, A.R. Blackburn, A. Darvill, W.S. York. 2005. Structural analysis of xyloglucans in the primary cell walls of plants in the subclass Asteridae. Carbohydr. Res. 340: 1826-1840. PMID:15975566

Z. Jia, M. Cash, A.G. Darvill, W.S. York. 2005. NMR characterization of endogenously O-acetylated oligosaccharides isolated from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) xyloglucan. Carbohydr. Res. 340: 1818-1825. PMID:15927168

R. Zhong, M.J. PeƱa, G-K. Zhou, C.J. Nairn, A. Wood-Jones, E.A. Richardson, W.H. Morrison, A.G. Darvill, W.S. York, Z-H. Ye. 2005. Arabidopsis Fragile Fiber8, which encodes a putative glucuronyltransferase, is essential for normal seccondary wall synthesis. Plant Cell 17: 3390-3408. PMID:16272433

M.A. O'Neill, T. Ishii, P. Albersheim, A.G. Darvill. 2004. Rhamnogalacturonan II: Structure and function of a borate cross-linked cell wall pectic polysaccharide. Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. 55: 109-139. PMID:15377216

T. Matsunaga, T. Ishii, S. Matsumoto, M. Higuchi, A. Darvill, P. Albersheim, M.A. O'Neill. 2004. Occurrences of the primary cell wall polysaccharide rhammogalacturonan II on pteridophytes, lycophytes, and vascular plants. Plant Physiol. 134: 339-351.

B.L. Reuhs, J. Glenn, S.B. Stephens, J.S. Kim, D.B. Christie, J.G. Glushka, E. Zablackis, P. Albersheim, A.G. Darvill, M.A. O'Neill. 2004. L-Galactose replaces L-fucose in the pectic polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan II synthesized by the L-fucose-deficient mur 1 Arabidopsis mutant. Planta 219: 147-157. PMID:14991405

G. Kemp, L. Stanton, C.W. Bergmann, R.P. Clay, A. Darvill, P. Albersheim. 2004. Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins can function as activators of polygalacturonase. Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact. 17: 888-894.

G. Freshour, C.P. Bonin, W.D. Reiter, P. Albersheim, A.G. Darvill, M.G. Hahn. 2003. Distribution of fucose-containing xyloglucans in cell walls of mur1 mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Physiol. 131: 1602-1612. PMID:12692319

J.N. Glushka, M. Terrell, W.S. York, M.A. O'Neill, A. Gucwa, A.G. Darvill, P. Albersheim, J.H. Prestegard. 2003. Primary structure of the 2-O-methyl-a-L-fucose-containing side chain of the pectic polysaccharide, rhamnogalacturonan II. Carbohydr. Res. 338: 341-352. PMID:12559732

Z. Jia, Q. Qin, A.G. Darvill, W.S. York. 2003. Structure of the xyloglucan produced by suspension-cultured tomato cells. Carbohydr. Res. 338: 1197-1208. PMID:12747862

Q. Qin, C.W. Bergmann, J.K.C. Rose, M. Saladie, V.S. Kumar, P. Albersheim, A.G. Darvill, W.S. York. 2003. Characterization of a tomato protein that inhibits a xyloglucan-specific endoglucanase. Plant J. 34: 327-338. PMID:12713539

M.A. Raimirez-Coronel, G.V. Gonzalez, A. Darvill, C. Augur. 2003. A novel tannase from Aspergillus niger with b-glucosidase activity. Microbiology 149: 2941-2946.

F. Brunner, W. Wirtz, J.K.C. Rose, A.G. Darvill, F. Govers, D. Scheel, T. Nurnberger. 2002. A b-glucosidase/xylosidase from the phytopathogenic oomycete, Phytophthora infestans. Phytochemistry 59: 689-696. PMID:11909624

J.K.C. Rose, K.-S. Ham, A.G. Darvill, P. Albersheim. 2002. Molecular cloning and characterization of glucanase inhibitor proteins: Coevolution of a counterdefense mechanism by plant pathogens. Plant Cell 14: 1329-1345. PMID:12084830

M. Pauly, Q. Qin, H. Greene, P. Albersheim, A. Darvill, W.S. York. 2001. Changes in the structure of xyloglucan during cell elongation. Planta 212: 842-850. PMID:11346960

M. Pauly, S. Eberhard, P. Albersheim, A. Darvill, W.S. York. 2001. Effects of the mur1 mutation on xyloglucans produced by suspension-cultured Arabidopsis thaliana cells. Planta 214: 67-74. PMID:11762172

M.A. O'Neill, S. Eberhard, P. Albersheim, A.G. Darvill. 2001. Requirement of borate cross-linking of cell wall rhamnogalacturonan II for Arabidopsis growth. Science 294: 846-849. PMID:11679668

C. Catala, J.K.C. Rose, W.S. York, P. Albersheim, A.G. Darvill, A.B. Bennett. 2001. Characterization of a tomato xyloglucan endotransglycosylase gene that is down-regulated by auxin in etiolated hypocotyls. Plant Physiol. 127: 1180-1192. PMID:11706197

J.M. Blumer, R.P. Clay, C.W. Bergmann, P. Albersheim, A. Darvill. 2000. Temporal and spatial expression of pectin methylesterase in ripening tomato fruit and its correlation to the degree of pectin esterification in exopericarp cell walls. Can J. Bot. 78: 607-618.

J.K.C. Rose, D.J. Cosgrove, P. Albersheim, A.G. Darvill, A.B. Bennett. 2000. Detection of expansin proteins and activity during tomato fruit ontogeny. Plant Physiol. 123: 1583-1592. PMID:10938374

H.U. Stotz, J. Bishop, C.W. Bergmann, M. Koch, P. Albersheim, A.G. Darvill, J.M. Labavitch. 2000. Evidence for divergent selection of amino acid sites in the evolution of fungal polygalacturonases and their plant inhibitors. Physiol. Mol. Plant Pathol. 56: 117-130.

H. Valafar, F. Valafar, A. Darvill, P. Albersheim, A. Kutlar, K.F. Woods, J. Hardin. 2000. Predicting the effectiveness of hydroxyurea in individual sickle cell anemia patients. Artificial Intell. Med. 18: 133-148.

S. Vidal, T. Doco, P. Williams, P. Pellerin, W.S. York, M.A. O'Neill, J. Glushka, A.G. Darvill, P. Albersheim. 2000. Structural characterization of the pectic polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan II: Evidence for the location of the aceric acid-containing oligoglycosyl side chain. Carbohydr. Res. 326: 277-294. PMID:10890275

B.J. Cook, R.P. Clay, C.W. Bergmann, P. Albersheim, A.G. Darvill. 1999. Fungal polygalacturonase exhibit different substrate degradation patterns and differ in their susceptibilities to polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins. Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact. 12: 703-711. PMID:10432636

T. Ishii, T. Matsunaga, P. Pellerin, M.A. O'Neill, A. Darvill, P. Albersheim. 1999. The plant cell wall polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan II self-assembles into a covalently cross-linked dimer. J. Biol. Chem. 274: 13098-13104. PMID:10224062

M. Pauly, L.N. Andersen, S. Kaupinen, L.V. Kofod, W.S. York, P. Albersheim, A.G. Darvill. 1999. A xyloglucan-specific endo-b-1,4-glucanase from Aspergillus aculeatus: expression cloning in yeast, purification, and characterization of the recombinant enzyme. Glycobiology 9: 93-100. PMID:9884411

F.M. Strickland, A. Darvill, P. Albersheim, S. Eberhard, M. Pauly, R.P. Pelley. 1999. Inhibition of UV-induced immune suppression and interleukin-10 production by plant oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. Photochem. Photobiol. 69: 141-147. PMID:10048309

M. Pauly, P. Albersheim, A. Darvill, W.S. York. 1999. Molecular domains of the cellulose-xyloglucan network in the cell walls of higher plants. The Plant J. 20: 629-639. PMID:10652135

H. Leibiger, B. Kersten, P. Albersheim, A. Darvill. 1998. Structural characterization of the oligosaccharides of a human monoclonal anti-lipopolysaccharide immunoglobulin M. Glycobiology 8: 497-507. PMID:9597548

Y. Mathieu, J. Guern, M.D. Spiro, M.A. O'Neill, K. Kates, A.G. Darvill, P. Albersheim. 1998. The transient nature of the oligogalacturonide-induced membrane responses of tobacco cells is not correlated with fragmentation of the oligogalacturonides. Plant J. 16: 305-311.

M.D. Spiro, B.L. Ridley, S. Eberhard, K.A. Kates, Y. Mathieu, M.A. O'Neill, D. Mohnen, J. Guern, A. Darvill, P. Albersheim. 1998. Biological activity in tobacco tissue cultures of reducing end-derivatized oligogalacturonides. Plant Physiol. 116: 1289-1298. PMID:9536045

P. Albersheim, A. Darvill, K. Roberts, L.A. Staehelin, J.E. Varner. 1997. Do the structures of cell wall polysaccharides define their mode of synthesis?. Plant Physiol. 113: 1-3. PMID:9008384

K.-S. Ham, A.G. Darvill, P. Albersheim. 1997. Fungal pathogens secrete an inhibitor protein that distinguishes isoforms of plant pathogenesis-related endo-b-1,3-glucanases. Plant J. 11: 169-179.

S. Hantus, M. Pauly, A.G. Darvill, P. Albersheim, W.S. York. 1997. Structural characterization of novel l-galactose-containing oligosaccharide subunits of jojoba seed xyloglucans. Carbohydr. Res. 304: 11-20. PMID:9403992

P. Pellerin, M.A. O'Neill, C. Pierre, M.-T. Cabanis, A. Darvill, P. Albersheim, M. Moutounet. 1997. The majority of the lead in wines is complexed with the grape pectic polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan II. J. Int. Sci. Vigne Vin 31: 33-41.

B.L. Ridley, M.D. Spiro, J. Glushka, P. Albersheim, A. Darvill, D. Mohnen. 1997. A method for biotin labeling of biologically active oligogalacturonides using a chemically stable hydrazide linkage. Anal. Biochem. 249: 10-19. PMID:9193702

S.-C. Wu, K.-S. Ham, A.G. Darvill, P. Albersheim. 1997. Deletion of two endo-b-1,4-xylanase genes reveals additional isozymes secreted by the rice blast fungus. Mol. Plant-Microbe Interac. 10: 700-708.

W.S. York, S. Hantus, P. Albersheim, A.G. Darvill. 1997. Determination of the absolute configuration of monosaccharides by 1H NMR spectroscopy of their per-O-(S)-2-methylbutyrate derivatives. Carbohydr. Res. 300: 199-206.

G. Freshour, R.P. Clay, M.S. Fuller, P. Albersheim, A.G. Darvill, M.G. Hahn. 1996. Developmental and tissue-specific structural alterations of the cell-wall polysaccharides of Arabidopsis thaliana roots. Plant Physiol. 110: 1413-1429. PMID:12226270

M.A. O'Neill, D. Warrenfeltz, K. Kates, P. Pellerin, T. Doco, A.G. Darvill, P. Albersheim. 1996. Structure of Plant Cell Walls XLIII. Rhamnogalacturonan-II, a pectic polysaccharide in the walls of growing plants, forms a dimer that is covalently cross-linked by a borate diester. In vitro conditions for the formation and hydrolysis of the dimer. J. Biol. Chem. 271: 22923-22930. PMID:8798473

M. Pauly, W.S. York, R. Guillen, P. Albersheim, A.G. Darvill. 1996. Improved protocol for the formation of N-(p-nitrobenzyloxy)-aminoalditol derivatives of oligosaccharides. Carbohydr. Res. 282: 1-12. PMID:8721734

M.D. Spiro, B.L. Ridley, J. Glushka, A.G. Darvill, P. Albersheim. 1996. Synthesis and characterization of a tyramine-derivatized 1,4-linked a-D-oligogalacturonides. Carbohydr. Res. 290: 147-157. PMID:8823904

M.N.V. Williams, G. Freshour, A.G. Darvill, P. Albersheim, M.G. Hahn. 1996. An antibody Fab selected from a recombinant phage display library detects deesterified pectic polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan II in plant cells. Plant Cell 8: 673-685. PMID:8624441

S.-C. Wu, J.M. Blumer, A.G. Darvill, P. Albersheim. 1996. Characterization of an endo-β-1,4-glucanase gene induced by auxin in elongating pea epicotyls. Plant Physiol. 110: 163-170. PMID:8587980

W.S. York, V.S.K. Kolli, R. Orlando, P. Albersheim, A.G. Darvill. 1996. The structures of arabinoxyloglucans produced by solanaceous plants. Carbohydr. Res. 285: 99-128. PMID:9011379

E. Zablackis, W.S. York, M. Pauly, W.-D. Reiter, C.C.S. Chapple, C.R. Somerville, P. Albersheim, A. Darvill. 1996. Substitution of L-fucose by L-galactose in cell walls of Arabidopsis mur1. Science 272: 1808-1810. PMID:8650583

C. Augur, V. Stiefel, A. Darvill, P. Albersheim, P. Puigdomenech. 1995. Molecular cloning and expression pattern of an a-fucosidase gene from pea seedlings. J. Biol. Chem. 270: 24839-24843. PMID:7559605

P. Azadi, M.A. O'Neill, C. Bergmann, A.G. Darvill, P. Albersheim. 1995. The backbone of the pectic polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan I is fragmented by an endohydrolase and an endolyase. Glycobiology 5: 783-789. PMID:8720076

A. Darvill, C. Bergmann, F. Cervone, G. De, K.-S. Ham, M.D. Spiro, W.S. York, P. Albersheim. 1995. Oligosaccharins involved in plant growth and host-pathogen interactions. Biochem. Soc. Symp. 60: 89-94. PMID:7639795

R. Guillen, W.S. York, M. Pauly, J. An, G. Impallomeni, P. Albersheim, A.G. Darvill. 1995. Metabolism of xyloglucan generates xylose-deficient oligosaccharide subunits of this polysaccharide in etiolated peas. Carbohydr. Res. 277: 291-311. PMID:8556737

K.-S. Ham, P. Albersheim, A.G. Darvill. 1995. Generation of b-glucan elicitors by plant enzymes and inhibition of the enzymes by fungal protein. Can J. Bot. 73: S1100-S1103.

W. Steffan, P. Kovac, P. Albersheim, A.G. Darvill, M.G. Hahn. 1995. Characterization of a monoclonal antibody that recognizes an arabinosylated (1->6)-b-D-galactan epitope in plant complex carbohydrates. Carbohydr. Res. 275: 295-307. PMID:8529225

A.J. Whitcombe, M.A. O'Neill, W. Steffan, P. Albersheim, A.G. Darvill. 1995. Structural characterization of the pectic polysaccharide, rhamnogalacturonan-II. Carbohydr. Res. 271: 15-29. PMID:7648580

S.-C. Wu, S. Kauffmann, A.G. Darvill, P. Albersheim. 1995. Purification, cloning and characterization of two xylanases from Magnaporthe grisea, the rice blast fungus. Mol. Plant-Microbe Interac. 8: 506-514. PMID:8589407

W.S. York, G. Impallomeni, M. Hisamatsu, P. Albersheim, A.G. Darvill. 1995. Eleven newly characterized xyloglucan oligoglycosyl alditols: the specific effects of sidechain structure and location on 1H NMR chemical shifts. Carbohydr. Res. 267: 79-104. PMID:7697670

E. Zablackis, J. Huang, B. Muller, A.G. Darvill, P. Albersheim. 1995. Characterization of the cell wall polysaccharides of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves. Plant Physiol. 107: 1129-1138. PMID:7770522

P. Albersheim, J. An, G. Freshour, M.S. Fuller, R. Guillen, K.-S. Ham, M.G. Hahn, J. Huang, M. O'Neill, A. Whitcombe, M.V. Williams, W.S. York, A.G. Darvill. 1994. Structure and function studies of plant cell wall polysaccharides. Biochem. Soc. Trans. 22: 374-378.

J. An, M.A. O'Neill, P. Albersheim, A.G. Darvill. 1994. Isolation and structural characterization of b-D-glucosyluronic acid and 4-O-methyl b-D-glucosyluronic acid-containing oligosaccharides from the cell wall pectic polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan I. Carbohydr. Res. 252: 235-243.

C. Bergmann, Y. Ito, D. Singer, P. Albersheim, A. Darvill, N. Benhamou, L. Nuss, G. Salvi, F. Cervone, G. De Lorenzo. 1994. Polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein accumulates in Phaseolus vulgaris L. in response to wounding, elicitors, and fungal infection. Plant J. 5: 625-634.

J. Puhlmann, E. Bucheli, M.J. Swain, N. Dunning, P. Albersheim, A.G. Darvill, M.G. Hahn. 1994. Generation of monoclonal antibodies against plant cell wall polysaccharides. I. Characterization of a monoclonal antibody to a terminal a-(1->2)-linked fucosyl-containing epitope. Plant Physiol. 104: 699-710.

C. Augur, N. Benhamou, A. Darvill, P. Albersheim. 1993. Purification, characterization, and cell wall localization of an a-fucosidase that inactivates a xyloglucan oligosaccharin. Plant J. 3: 415-426.

D. Bellincampi, G. Salvi, G. De Lorenzo, F. Cervone, V. Marfa, S. Eberhard, A. Darvill, P. Albersheim. 1993. Oligogalacturonides inhibit the formation of roots on tobacco explants. Plant J. 4(1): 207-213.

K.P. Brady, A.G. Darvill, P. Albersheim. 1993. Activation of a tobacco glycine-rich protein gene by a fungal glucan preparation. Plant J. 4(3): 517-524.

C. Caprari, C. Bergmann, Q. Migheli, G. Salvi, P. Albersheim, A. Darvill, F. Cervone, G. De Lorenzo. 1993. Fusarium moniliforme secretes four endopolygalacturonases derived from a single gene product. Physiol. Mol. Plant Pathol. 43: 453-462.

A.G. Darvill, , P. Albersheim. 1993. Studies of phytoalexins and their elicitors led to the discovery of oligosaccharins. Citation Classic, Current Contents 32(24): 8-.

S.C. Fry, W.S. York, P. Albersheim, A. Darvill, T. Hayashi, J.-P. Joseleau, Y. Kato, E.P. Lorences, G.A. Maclachlan, M. McNeil, A.J. Mort, J.S.G. Reid, H.-U. Seitz, R.R. Selvendran, A.G.J. Voragen, A.R. White. 1993. An unambiguous nomenclature for xyloglucan-derived oligosaccharides. Physiol. Plant. 89: 1-3.

P. Lerouge, M.A. O'Neill, A.G. Darvill, P. Albersheim. 1993. Structural characterization of endo-glycanase-generated oligoglycosyl side chains of rhamnogalacturonan I. Carbohydr. Res. 243: 359-371.

P. Lerouge, M.A. O'Neill, A.G. Darvill, P. Albersheim. 1993. The purification of commercially available endo-a-L-arabinanase and a-L-arabinosidase for use in the structural analysis of pectic polysaccharides. Carbohydr. Res. 243: 373-378.

M.D. Spiro, K.A. Kates, A.L. Koller, M.A. O'Neill, P. Albersheim, A. Darvill. 1993. Purification and characterization of biologically active 1,4-linked a-D-oligogalacturonides after partial digestion of polygalacturonic acid with endopolygalacturonase. Carbohydr. Res. 247: 9-20.

W.S. York, L.K. Harvey, R. Guillen, P. Albersheim, A.G. Darvill. 1993. Structural analysis of tamarind seed xyloglucan oligosaccharides using b-galactosidase digestion and spectroscopic methods. Carbohydr. Res. 248: 285-301.

P. Albersheim, C. Augur, J.-J. Cheong, S. Eberhard, M.G. Hahn, V. Marfa, D. Mohnen, M.A. O'Neill, M.D. Spiro, W.S. York, A. Darvill. 1992. Oligosaccharins -- oligosaccharide regulatory molecules. Accts. Chem. Res. 25: 77-83.

C. Augur, L. Yu, K. Sakai, T. Ogawa, P. Sina’, A.G. Darvill, P. Albersheim. 1992. Further studies of the ability of xyloglucan oligosaccharides to inhibit auxin-stimulated growth. Plant Physiol. 99: 180-185.

A. Darvill, C. Augur, C. Bergmann, R.W. Carlson, J.-J. Cheong, S. Eberhard, M.G. Hahn, V.-M. Lo, V. Marfa, B. Meyer, D. Mohnen, M.A. O'Neill, M.D. Spiro, H. van Halbeek, W.S. York, P. Albersheim. 1992. Oligosaccharins - oligosaccharides that regulate growth, development and defense reponses in plants. Glycobiology 2: 181-198.

M. Hisamatsu, W.S. York, A.G. Darvill, P. Albersheim. 1992. Structure of Plant Cell Walls XXXIV. Characterization of seven xyloglucan oligosaccharides containing from seventeen to twenty glycosyl residues. Carbohydr. Res. 227: 45-71.

M.A. O'Neill, P.D. Robison, K.J. Chou, A.G. Darvill, P. Albersheim. 1992. Evidence that the acidic polysaccharide secreted by Agrobacterium radiobacter (ATCC 52371) has a seventeen glycosyl-residue repeating unit. Carbohydr. Res. 226: 131-154.

P. Toubart, L. Daroda, A. Desiderio, G. Salvi, F. Cervone, G. De Lorenzo, C. Bergmann, A.G. Darvill, P. Albersheim. 1992. Cloning and characterization of the gene encoding the endopolygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) of Phaseolus vulgaris L. Plant J. 2: 367-373.

G. De Lorenzo, F. Cervone, M.G. Hahn, A. Darvill, P. Albersheim. 1991. Bacterial endopectate lyase: evidence that plant cell wall pH prevents tissue maceration and increases the half-life of elicitor-active oligogalacturonides. Physiol. Mol. Plant Pathol. 39: 335-344.

S.H. Doares, P. Albersheim, A.G. Darvill. 1991. An improved method for the preparation of standards for glycosyl-linkage analysis of complex carbohydrates. Carbohydr. Res. 210: 311-317.

K.-S. Ham, S. Kauffmann, P. Albersheim, A.G. Darvill. 1991. Host-Pathogen Interactions XXXIX. A soybean pathogenesis-related protein with b-1,3-glucanase activity releases phytoalexin elicitor-active heat stable fragments from fungal walls. Mol. Plant-Microbe Interac. 4: 545-552.

M. Hisamatsu, G. Impallomeni, W.S. York, P. Albersheim, A.G. Darvill. 1991. A new undecasaccharide subunit of xyloglucans with two a-fucosyl residues. Carbohydr. Res. 211: 117-129.

A.L. Koller, M. O'Neill, A.G. Darvill, P. Albersheim. 1991. A comparison of the polysaccharides extracted from dried and non-dried walls of suspension-cultured sycamore cells. Phytochemistry 30: 3903-3908.

V. Marfa, D.J. Gollin, S. Eberhard, D. Mohnen, A. Darvill, P. Albersheim. 1991. Oligogalacturonides are able to induce flowers to form on tobacco explants. Plant J. 1: 217-225.

Y. Mathieu, A. Kurkdjian, H. Xia, J. Guern, A. Koller, M.D. Spiro, M.A. O'Neill, P. Albersheim, A. Darvill. 1991. Membrane responses induced by oligogalacturonides in suspension-cultured tobacco cells. Plant J. 1: 333-343.

B. Meyer, T. Hansen, D. Nute, P. Albersheim, A. Darvill, W. York, J. Sellers. 1991. Identification of the 1H-NMR spectra of complex oligosaccharides with artificial neural networks. Science 251: 542-544.

M.A. O'Neill, A.G. Darvill, P. Albersheim. 1991. The esterification and points of substitution of O-acetyl and O-(3-hydroxybutanoyl) groups in the acidic extracellular polysaccharides secreted by Rhizobium leguminosarum biovars viciae, trifolii, and phaseoli are not related to host range. J. Biol. Chem. 266: 9549-9555.

V. Puvanesarajah, A.G. Darvill, P. Albersheim. 1991. Structural characterization of two oligosaccharide fragments formed by the selective cleavage of rhamnogalacturonan II: Evidence for the anomeric configuration and attachment sites of apiose and 3-deoxy-2-heptulosaric acid. Carbohydr. Res. 218: 211-222.

P. Bucheli, S.H. Doares, P. Albersheim, A. Darvill. 1990. Host-Pathogen Interactions XXXVI. Partial purification and characterization of heat-labile molecules secreted by the rice blast pathogen that generate cell wall fragments that kill plant cells. Physiol. Mol. Plant Pathol. 36: 159-173.

F. Cervone, G. De Lorenzo, R. Pressey, P. Albersheim, A.G. Darvill. 1990. Host-Pathogen Interactions XXXV. Can Phaseolus PGIP inhibit pectic enzymes from microbes and plants?. Phytochemistry 29: 447-449.

G. De Lorenzo, Y. Ito, R. D'Ovidio, F. Cervone, P. Albersheim, A.G. Darvill. 1990. Host-Pathogen Interactions XXXVII. Abilities of the polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins from four cultivars of Phaseolus vulgaris to inhibit endopolygalacturonases from three races of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. Physiol. Mol. Plant Pathol. 36: 421-435.

L.L. Kiefer, W.S. York, P. Albersheim, A.G. Darvill. 1990. The Structure of Plant Cell Walls XXX. Structural characterization of an arabinose-containing heptadecasaccharide enzymatically isolated from sycamore extracellular xyloglucan. Carbohydr. Res. 197: 139-158.

D. Mohnen, S. Eberhard, V. Marfa, N. Doubrava, P. Toubart, D. Gollin, T. Gruber, W. Nuri, P. Albersheim, A. Darvill. 1990. Control of root, vegetative shoot, and flower organogenesis in tobacco thin-cell-layer morphogenesis. Development 108: 191-201.

M.A. O'Neill, A.G. Darvill, P. Albersheim, K.J. Chou. 1990. Structural analysis of an acidic polysaccharide secreted by Xanthobacter sp. (ATCC 53272). Carbohydr. Res. 206: 289-296.

J. Sellers, W. York, P. Albersheim, A. Darvill, B. Meyer. 1990. Identification of the mass spectra of partially methylated alditol acetates by artificial neural networks. Carbohydr. Res. 207: C1-C5.

W. Von Deyn, W.S. York, P. Albersheim, A. Darvill. 1990. 1-alkoxyamino-1-deoxy alditols, useful u.v.-absorbing derivatives of neutral and acidic oligosaccharides. Carbohydr. Res. 201: 135-144.

W.S. York, L.L. Kiefer, A.G. Darvill, P. Albersheim. 1990. Oxidation of oligoglycosyl alditols during methylation catalyzed by sodium hydroxide and iodomethane in methyl sulfoxide. Carbohydr. Res. 208: 175-182.

W.S. York, H. Van, A.G. Darvill, P. Albersheim. 1990. Structural analysis of xyloglucan oligosaccharides by 1H-n.m.r. spectroscopy and fast-atom-bombardment mass spectrometry. Carbohydr. Res. 200: 9-31.

F. Cervone, M.G. Hahn, G. De Lorenzo, A. Darvill, P. Albersheim. 1989. Host-Pathogen Interactions XXXIII. A plant protein converts a fungal pathogenesis factor into an elicitor of plant defense reponses. Plant Physiol. 90: 542-548.

S.H. Doares, P. Bucheli, P. Albersheim, A.G. Darvill. 1989. Host-Pathogen Interactions XXXIV. A heat-labile activity secreted by a fungal phytopathogen releases fragments of plant cell walls that kill plant cells. Mol. Plant-Microbe Interac. 2: 346-353.

S. Doubet, K. Bock, D. Smith, A. Darvill, P. Albersheim. 1989. The complex carbohydrate structure database. TIBS 14: 475-477.

S. Eberhard, N. Doubrava, V. , D. Mohnen, A. Southwick, A. Darvill, P. Albersheim. 1989. Pectic cell wall fragments regulate tobacco thin-cell-layer explant morphogenesis. Plant Cell 1: 747-755.

T. Ishii, J. Thomas, A. Darvill, P. Albersheim. 1989. The Structure of Plant Cell Walls XXVI. The walls of suspension-cultured sycamore cells contain a family of rhamnogalacturonan-I-like pectic polysaccharides. Plant Physiol. 89: 421-428.

L. Kiefer, W. York, A. Darvill, P. Albersheim. 1989. The Structure of Plant Cell Walls XXVII. Xyloglucan isolated from suspension-cultured sycamore cell walls is O-acetylated. Phytochemistry 28: 2105-2107.

M. Kopp, J. Rouster, B. Fritig, A. Darvill, P. Albersheim. 1989. Host-Pathogen Interactions XXXII. A fungal glucan preparation protects Nicotianae against infection by viruses. Plant Physiol. 90: 208-216.

R.A. O'Neill, A. Darvill, P. Albersheim. 1989. A fluorescence assay for enzymes that cleave glycosidic linkages. Anal. Biochem. 177: 11-15.

R.A. O'Neill, P. Albersheim, A.G. Darvill. 1989. The Structure of Plant Cell Walls XXVIII. Purification and characterization of a xyloglucan oligosaccharide-specific xylosidase for pea seedlings. J. Biol. Chem. 264: 20430-20437.

J.R. Thomas, A.G. Darvill, P. Albersheim. 1989. The Structure of Plant Cell Walls XXIV. Isolation and structural characterization of the pectic polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan II from walls of suspension-cultured rice cells. Carbohydr. Res. 185: 261-277.

J.R. Thomas, A.G. Darvill, P. Albersheim. 1989. The Structure of Plant Cell Walls XXV. Rhamnogalacturonan I, a pectic polysaccharide, is a component of monocot cell walls. Carbohydr. Res. 185: 279-305.

R.A. O'Neill, A.R. White, W.S. York, A.G. Darvill, P. Albersheim. 1988. A gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric assay for glycosylases. Phytochemistry 27: 329-333.

T.T. Stevenson, A.G. Darvill, P. Albersheim. 1988. The Structure of Plant Cell Walls XXII. 3-Deoxy-D-2-heptulosaric acid, a component of the plant cell-wall polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan-II. Carbohydr. Res. 179: 269-288.

W.S. York, J.E. Oates, H. Van Halbeek, A.G. Darvill, P. Albersheim, P.R. Tiller, A. Dell. 1988. Structure of Plant Cell Walls XXI. Location of the O-acetyl substituents on a nonasaccharide repeating unit of sycamore extracellular xyloglucan. Carbohydr. Res. 173: 113-132.

J.M. Lau, M. McNeil, A.G. Darvill, P. Albersheim. 1988. Enhancement of protonated molecular ions and ammonium molecular ion complexes in direct-liquid-introduction-mass spectrometry of carbohydrates. Carbohydr. Res. 173: 101-111.

J.M. Lau, M. McNeil, A.G. Darvill, P. Albersheim. 1987. Selective degradation of the glycosyluronic acids in complex carbohydrates by lithium dissolved in ethylenediamine. Carbohydr. Res. 168: 219-243.

J.M. Lau, M. McNeil, A.G. Darvill, P. Albersheim. 1987. Lithium in ethylenediamine treatment of rhamnogalacturonan I. Carbohydr. Res. 168: 245-274.

J.M. Lau, M. McNeil, A.G. Darvill, P. Albersheim. 1987. Enhancement of protonated molecular ions and ammonium molecular ion complexes in direct-liquid-introduction-mass spectrometry of carbohydrates. Carbohydr. Res. 173: 101-111.

J.R. Thomas, M. McNeil, A.G. Darvill, P. Albersheim. 1987. Structure of Plant Cell Walls XIX. Isolation and characterization of wall polysaccharides from suspension-cultured Douglas fir cells. Plant Physiol. 83: 659-671.

K.R. Davis, A.G. Darvill, P. Albersheim, A. Dell. 1986. Host-Pathogen Interactions XXIX. Oligogalacturonides released from sodium polypectate by endopolygalacturonic acid lyase are elicitors of phytoalexins in soybean. Plant Physiol. 80: 568-577.

K.R. Davis, A.G. Darvill, P. Albersheim, A. Dell. 1986. Host-Pathogen Interactions XXX. Characterization of elicitors of phytoalexin accumulation in soybean released from soybean cell walls by endopolygalacturonic acid lyase. Z. Naturforsch. 41c: 39-48.

K.R. Davis, A.G. Darvill, P. Albersheim. 1986. Host-Pathogen Interactions XXXI. Several biotic and abiotic elicitors act synergistically in the induction of phytoalexin accumulation in soybean. Plant Mol. Biol. 6: 23-32.

M. McNeil, J. Darvill, A.G. Darvill, P. Albersheim, R. van Veen, P. Hooykaas, R. Schilperoort, A. Dell. 1986. The discernible, structural features of the acidic polysaccharides secreted by different Rhizobium species are the same. Carbohydr. Res. 146: 307-326.

L.D. Melton, M. McNeil, A.G. Darvill, P. Albersheim, A. Dell. 1986. Structural characterization of oligosaccharides isolated from the pectic polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan II. Carbohydr. Res. 146: 279-305.

P.J. Moore, A.G. Darvill, P. Albersheim, L.A. Staehelin. 1986. Immunogold localization of xyloglucan and rhamnogalacturonan I in the cell walls of suspension-cultured sycamore cells. Plant Physiol. 82: 787-794.

T.T. Stevenson, M. McNeil, A.G. Darvill, P. Albersheim. 1986. Structure of Plant Cell Walls XVIII. An analysis of the extracellular polysaccharides of suspension-cultured sycamore cells. Plant Physiol. 80: 1012-1019.

G. Storz, A.G. Darvill, P. Albersheim. 1986. Characterization of polysaccharides isolated from maple syrup. Phytochemistry 25: 437-441.

P. Albersheim, A.G. Darvill. 1985. Oligosaccharins: novel molecules that can regulate growth, development, reproduction, and defense against disease in plants. Sci. Am. 253(3): 58-64.

A.G. Darvill, P. Albersheim, M. McNeil, J.M. Lau, W.S. York, T.T. Stevenson, J. Thomas, S. Doares, D.J. Gollin, P. Chelf, K. Davis. 1985. Structure and function of plant cell wall polysaccharides. J. Cell Sci. Suppl. 2: 203-217.

J.M. Lau, M. McNeil, A.G. Darvill, P. Albersheim. 1985. Structure of the backbone of rhamnogalacturonan I, a pectic polysaccharide in the primary cell walls of plants. Carbohydr. Res. 137: 111-125.

K. Tran Thanh Van, P. Toubart, A. Cousson, A.G. Darvill, D.J. Gollin, P. Chelf, P. Albersheim. 1985. Manipulation of the morphogenetic pathways of tobacco explants by oligosaccharins. Nature 314: 615-617.

W.S. York, A.G. Darvill, M. McNeil, P. Albersheim. 1985. 3-deoxy-D-manno-2-octulosonic acid (KDO) is a component of rhamnogalacturonan II, a pectic polysaccharide in the primary cell walls of plants. Carbohydr. Res. 138: 109-126.

W.S. York, A.G. Darvill, M. McNeil, T.T. Stevenson, P. Albersheim. 1985. Isolation and characterization of plant cell walls and cell-wall components. Methods Enzymol. 118: 3-40.

Book Chapters

RD Cummings, AG Darvill, ME Etzler, MG Hahn. 2017. Glycan-recognizing probes as tools. In: A Varki, RD Cummings, JD Esko, P Stanley, GW Hart, A Aebi, AG Darvill, T Kinoshita, NH Parker, JH Prestegard, RI Schnaar, PH Seeberger. In: Essentials of Glycobiology, Vol.3rd Edition:611-625. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

G. Gutierrez-Sanchez, P. Shah, J.A. Atwood, D. Lennon, E.L. Tran, P. Albersheim, A. Darvill, R. Orlando, S.C. Wu. 2011. Proteomics of pathogen-host interactions: Magnaporthe grisea-rice as a model. In: Phytopathology in the Omics Era (R. Rodriguez-Herrera, C.N. Aguilar, J.K. Simpson-Williamson, G. Gutierrez-Sanchez Eds.), pp. 161-174. Research Signpost.

S.C. Wu, J. Johnson, A.G. Darvill, P. Albershiem, R. Orlando. 2004. Proteomics of Magnaporthe grisea: liquid chromatography mass spectrometry for the identification of extracellular proteins . In: Rice Blast Disease: Interaction with Rice and Control (S. Kawasaki, ed.), pp. 39-46. Kluwer Press, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.

M.A. O'Neill, S. Eberhard, B. Reuhs, W.D. Reiter, T. Ishii, T. Fujiwara, P. Albershiem, A. Darvill. 2004. Covalent cross-linking of primary cell wall pectic polysaccharides is required for normal plant growth. In: Pectins and Pectinases . In Press.

M.A. O'Neill, S. Eberhard, B. Reuhs, W.D. Reiter, T. Ishii, T. Fujiwara, P. Albershiem, A.G. Darvill. 2003. Borate ester cross-linking of pectin is required for plant growth. In: Advances in Pectin and Pectinase Research (F. Voragen, H. Schols, and R. Visser, eds.), pp. 61-73. Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands.

C.W. Bergmann, L. Stanton, D. King, R.P. Clay, G. Kemp, R. Orlando, A. Darvill, P. Albersheim. 2003. Recent observations on the specificity and structural conformation of the polygalacturonase-polygalacturonase inhibiting protein system. In: Advances in Pectin and Pectinase Research (F. Voragen, H. Schols, and R. Visser, eds.), pp. 277-291. Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands.

V.S.K. Kolli, J. Johnson, R. Orlando, A.G. Darvill, P. Albersheim, S.-C. Wu. 2003. Proteomic identification of extracellular proteins secreted by the rice blast fungus. In: Proceedings of the 51st American Society of Mass Spectrometry Conference, Montreal, Canada, June 8-12 .

W.S. York, M. Pauly, Q. Qin, Z. Jia, R.L. Doong, J.P. Simon, P. Albersheim, A.G. Darvill. 2002. The xyloglucan-cellulose network of plant cell walls: A prototype for the chemoenzymatic preparation of novel polysaccharide composites. In: Carbohydrate Bioengineering Interdisplinary Approaches (T. Teeri, B. Svensson, H.J. Gilbert, and T. Feizi, eds.), pp. 143-150. Royal Society of Chemistry, Stockholm.

M.A. O'Neill, A.G. Darvill, P. Albersheim. 2001. Pectic substances. In: Encyclopedia of Life Sciences. Web pub: www.els.net . Macmillan Reference Ltd., London.

W.S. York, M. Pauly, Q. Qin, Z. Jia, R.L. Doong, J.P. Simon, P. Albersheim, A.G. Darvill. 2001. The xyloglucan-cellulose network of plant cell walls: A prototype for the chemoenzymatic preparation of novel polysaccharide composites. In: Conference Proceedings of the 4th Carbohydrate Bioengineering Meeting, pp. In press. Royal Society of Chemistry.

J.K.C. Rose, M.A. O'Neill, P. Albersheim, A. Darvill. 2000. The primary cell walls of higher plants. In: The Biology of Oligosaccharides (W. Ernst and G.W. Hart, eds.), pp. 783-808. Wiley, London..

J.K.C. Rose, K.-S. Ham, S.-C. Wu, A.G. Darvill, P. Albersheim. 1999. Cell wall hydrolases and their inhibitor proteins: Key elements in the battle between plants and their pathogens. In: Biochemistry and Biotechnology 99, Vol.12.

P. Albersheim, A.G. Darvill, M.A. O'Neill, H.A. Schols, A.G.J. Voragen. 1996. An hypothesis: the same six polysaccharides are components of the primary cell walls of all higher plants. In: Pectins and Pectinases - Proceedings of a Conference (J. Visser, ed.), pp. 47-55. Elsevier Publishers, Amsterdam.

C.W. Bergmann, B.J. Cook, A.G. Darvill, P. Albersheim, D. Bellincampi, C. Caprari. 1996. The effects of glycosylation of endopolygalacturonases and polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins on the production of oligogalacturonides. In: Pectins and Pectinases - Proceedings of a Conference (J. Visser, ed.), pp. 275-282. Elsevier Publishers, Amsterdam.

M.G. Hahn, A. Darvill, P. Albersheim, C. Bergmann, J.-J. Cheong, A. Koller, V.-M. Lo.. 1992. Purification and characterization of oligosaccharide elicitors of phytoalexin accumulation. In: Molecular Plant Pathology - A Practical Approach, Vol. 2 (S. Gurr, M. McPherson, and D.J. Bowles, eds.), pp. 103-147 . IRL Press.

P. Albersheim, A. Darvill. 1990. The commercial potential of plant cell wall polysaccharides and oligosaccharins. In: Proceedings of the Symposium "Towards A Carbohydrate-Based Chemistry," October 23-26, 1989. Commission of the European Communities, Amiens, France, pp. 175-196.

M.A. O'Neill, P. Albersheim, A. Darvill. 1990. The pectic polysaccharides of primary cell walls. In: Methods in Plant Biochemistry, Vol. 2 (D.M. Dey, ed.), pp. 415-441. Academic Press, London.

F. Cervone, G. De Lorenzo, R. D'Ovidio, M.G. Hahn, Y. Ito, A. Darvill, P. Albersheim. 1989. Phytotoxic effects and phytoalexin-elicitor activity of microbial pectic enzymes. In: Phytotoxins and Plant Pathogenesis, NATO/ASI Series, Vol. H27 (A. Ballio et al., eds.), pp. 473-477. Springer-Verlag, Berlin-Heidelberg.

F. Cervone, G. De Lorenzo, G. Salvi, C. Bergmann, Y. Ito, M.G. Hahn, A. Darvill, P. Albersheim. 1989. Release of phytoalexin elicitor-active oligogalacturonides by microbial pectic enzymes. In: Signal Molecules in Plants and Plant-Microbe Interactions, NATO/ASI Series, Vol. H36 (B.J.J. Lugtenberg, ed.), pp. 85-89. Springer-Verlag, Berlin-Heidelberg.

S.H. Doares, P. Bucheli, P. Albersheim, A.G. Darvill. 1989. Fungal enzymes, plant cell wall fragments, and plant cell death: a possible mechanism for hypersensitivity in the rice blast system. In: Molecular Signals in Microbe-Plant Symbiotic and Pathogenic Systems, NATO/ASI Series Vol. H36 (B.J.J. Lugtenberg, ed.), pp. 229-233. Springer-Verlag, Berlin-Heidelberg.

M.G. Hahn, P. Bucheli, F. Cervone, S.H. Doares, R.A. O'Neill, A.G. Darvill, P. Albersheim. 1989. The role of cell wall constituents in plant-pathogen interactions. In: Plant-Microbe Interactions, Vol. 3 (E. Nester and T. Kosuge, eds.), pp. 131-181. McGraw Hill, New York.

A.G. Darvill, P. Albersheim, P. Bucheli, S. Doares, N. Doubrava, S. Eberhard, D.J. Gollin, M.G. Hahn, V. Marfa-Riera, W.S. York, D. Mohnen. 1989. Oligosaccharins - plant regulatory molecules. In: Molecular Signals in Microbe-Plant Symbiotic and Pathogenic Systems, NATO/ASI Series, Vol. H36 (B.J.J. Lugtenberg, ed.), pp. 41-48. Spring-Verlag, Berlin-Heidelberg.

P. Albersheim, A.G. Darvill, K.R. Davis, S.H. Doares, D.J. Gollin, R.A. O'Neill, P.R. Toubart, W.S. York. 1987. Oligosaccharins--complex carbohydrate regulatory molecules. In: The Cell Surface in Signal Transduction (E. Wagner et al., eds.), pp. 147-149. Springer-Verlag, Berlin-Heidelberg.

A.G. Darvill, K.R. Davis, S.H. Doares, D.J. Gollin, R.A. O'Neill, P.R. Toubart, W.S. York, P. Albersheim. 1987. Oligosaccharins - molecules that can regulate plant morphogenesis and defense against disease. In: Molecular Mechanisms in the Regulation of Cell Behavior, pp. 283-284. Alan R. Liss, Inc., New York.

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