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Research
Bacterial Polysaccharides
Biomass and Bioenergy
Carbohydrate Synthesis and Chemical Biology
Computational Simulations
Conformational Analysis
Enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism
Glycoconjugates in Animal Development, Disease and Cancer
Glycoconjugates in Host-Pathogen Interactions
Mass Spectrometry
NMR Spectroscopy
Plant Cell Walls
Plant Polysaccharides - Biosynthesis, Structure, and Function
Protein-Carbohydrate Interactions
Signal Transduction in Plants

Carl Bergmann
Associate VP Research-Facilities; Associate Director, CCRC; Executive Director, Animal Health Research Center; Senior Research Scientist


Structure and function of the proteins that interact with anionic extracellular matrix polysaccharides in plants and animals

E-mail: cberg@ccrc.uga.edu
Telephone: 706-542-4487
Fax: 706-542-4412

Short Biography
Research Interests
Publications
Lab-personal web site

Short Biography:
Carl Bergmann received his Ph.D. in Organic Chemistry from the Ohio State University, and joined the Complex Carbohydrate Research Center as a postdoctoral research associate in 1986. He is currently a Senior Research Scientist. Dr. Bergmann’s research interests are in the biochemistry of acidic polysaccharides of plant and animal origin. Since 1990 he has served as the Facilities Director of the CCRC, which included the design and construction of two expansions of the original facility as well as overseeing the design and construction of the current CCRC facility. From 2007-2011, Dr. Bergmann served as Director of the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory in Aiken, South Carolina, and in 2008, he was appointed UGA Assistant Vice President for Research--Facilities. Full Publications: 41

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Research Interests:
The research pursued by my laboratory focuses on the structure and function of the proteins that interact with anionic extracellular matrix polysaccharides in plants and animals. Early research focused exclusively on proteins interacting with the (mammalian) glycosaminoglycans. In the last 15 years most of my work has centered on the degradation of pectins by fungal enzymes during pathogenesis and plant mechanisms to alter the rate at which that degradation occurs. The interaction of plant and fungal proteins during pathogenesis may have a profound effect on the success of the attempted fungal invasion, due in part to the structure of the cell wall oligosaccharides produced as a result of those interactions.

Investigating such interactions requires the ability to characterize both the proteins and the oligosaccharides produced. While much of this has been performed using traditional biochemical approaches, over the last several years my laboratory has moved toward a heavy involvement in mass spectrometry, done in collaboration with Ron Orlando and Lance Wells, and the use of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectrometry. Currently our work is focusing on combining biochemistry, SPR and mass spectrometry to investigate the mechanism of both hydrolysis and inhibition.

I am interested in applying this powerful set of tools to the study of mammalian matrix polysaccharides, as this work has served to highlight similarities between the mammalian and plant matrix polysaccharides and the enzymes that metabolize them. There is substantial evidence as to the roles of pectins in medicine including potentiation of human colonic adenocarcinoma cells, immunostimulating activity, anti- ulcer activity, anti-metastasis activity, anti-mutagenic activity, anti-nephrosis, and cholesterol decreasing activity. Our lab has been actively looking at the relationships between pectins and glycosaminoglycans, as well as between the microbial pectin degrading enzymes (PDEs) and microbial GAG degrading enzymes. It is a reasonable assumption that the receptors for GAGs involved in such activities as neural development and angiogenesis could act as potential targets for pectins and that the role of the GAGs themselves in neural development or angiogenesis may be altered by pectin degrading enzymes. Based on this hypothesis and our compelling in vitro data, we are currently investigating the in vivo role of pectins and PDE in modulating GAG function.

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Publications: Author's Last Name: Bergmann

Journal Articles
Book Chapters are listed at the bottom of this page.

T Volke-Sepulveda, D Salgado-Bautista, C Bergmann, L Wells, G Gutierrez-Sanchez, E Favela-Torres. 2016. Secretomic insight into glucose metabolism of aspergillus brasiliensis in solid-state fermentation . J Proteome Res 15(10): 3856-3871. PMID:27548361

B. Zhang, W.Y. Xiao, H. Qiu, F. Zhang, HA Moniz, A Jaworski, E. Condac, G. Gutierrez-Sanchez, C. Heiss, RD Clugston, P. Azadi, JJ Greer, C. Bergmann, KW Moremen, D. Li, RJ Linhardt, JD Esko, L Wang. 2014. Heparan sulfate deficiency disrupts developmental angiogenesis and causes congenital diaphragmatic hernia. J. Clin. Invest. 124(1): 209-221. PMID:24355925

B. Zhang, W.Y. Xiao, H. Qiu, F.M. Zhang, H.A. Moniz, E. Condac, G. Gutierrez-Sanchez, C. Heiss, R.D. Clugston, P. Azadi, J.J. Greer, C. Bergmann, K.W. Moremen, D. Li, R.J. Linhardt, J.D. Esko, L. Wang. 2013. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia results from disruption of developmental angiogenesis mediated by Slit3-Robo4-heparan sulfate signaing. J. Clin. Invest. In press.

P. Shah, D.A. Powell, R. Orlando, C. Bergmann, G. Gutierrez-Sanchez. 2012. A proteomic analysis of ripening tomato fruit infected by Botrytis cinerea. J Proteome Res 11: 2178-2192. PMID:22364583

S.Y. Zhang, E. Condac, H. Qiu, J.L. Jiang, G. Gutierrez-Sanchez, C. Bergmann, T. Handel, L.C. Wang. 2012. Heparin-induced leukocytosis requires 6-O-sulfation and is caused by blockade of selectin-and CXCL 12 protein-mediated leukocyte trafflicking in mice. J. Biol. Chem. 287: 5542-5553. PMID:22194593

E. Condac, H. Strachan, G. Gutierrez-Sanchez, B.M. Brainard, C. Giese, C. Heiss, D. Johnson, P. Azadi, C. Bergmann, R. Orlando. 2012. The C-terminal fragment of axon guidance molecular Slit3 binds heparin and neutralizes heparin anticoagulant activity. Glycobiol. 22: 1183-1192. PMID:22641771

E. Condac, H. Strachan, D. King, G. Kemp, G. Gutierrez-Sanchez, B.M. Brainard, C. Giese, C. Heiss, D. Johnson, P. Azadi, C. Bergmann, R. Orlando. 2012. SPR and differentia proteolysis/MS provide further insight into the interaction between PGIP2 and EPGs. Fungal Biol. 116: 737-746. PMID:22749160

S. Zhang, E. Condac, H. Qiu, J. Jiang, G. Gutierrez-Sanchez, C. Bergmann, T. Handel, L. Wang. 2011. Hepariun-Induced Leukocytosis Requires 6-O-Sulfation and is Caused by Blockade of Selectin-and CXCL12-Mediated Leukocyte Trafficking in Mice. J. Biol. Chem. 287: 5542-5553. PMID:22194593

R. Hernandez-Martinez, G. Gutierrez-Sanchez, C.S. Bergmann, O. Loera-Corral, A. Rojo-Dominguez, S. Huerta-Ochoa, L.A. Prado-Barragan. 2011. Purification and characterization of a thermodynamic stable serin protease from Aspergillus fumigates. Process Biochem. 46: 2001-2006.

J. Renovato, G. Gutierrez-Sanchez, L.V. Rodiguez-Duran, C. Bergmann, R. Rodriguez, C.N. Aguilar. 2011. Differential properties of Aspergillus niger tannase produced under solid-state and submerged fermentations. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 165: 382-395. PMID:21503777

S.H. Stalnaker, S. Hashmi, J-M Lim, K. Aoki, M. Porterfield, G. Gutierrez-Sanchez, J. Wheeler, J.M. Ervasti, C. Bergmann, M. Tiemeyer, L. Wells. 2010. Site-mapping and characterization of O-glycan structures on alpha-dystroglycan isolated from rabbit skeletal muscle. J. Biol. Chem. 285: 24882-24891. PMID:20507986

S.H. Stalnaker, S. Hashmi, J-M Lim, K. Aoki, M. Porterfield, G. Gutierrez-Sanchez, J. Wheeler, J.M. Ervasti, C. Bergmann, M. Tiemeyer, L. Wells. 2010. Site-mapping and characterization of O-glycan structures on alpha-dystroglycan isolated from rabbit skeletal muscle. J. Biol. Chem. 285: 24882-24891. PMID:20507986

P. Shah, G. Gutierrez-Sanchez, R. Orlando, C. Bergmann. 2009. A proteomic study of pectin-degrading enzymes secreted by Botrytis cinerea grown in liquid culture. Proteomics 9: 3126-3135. PMID:19526562

J.M. Lim, K. Aoki, P.M. Angel, D. Garrison, D. King, M. Tiemeyer, C. Bergmann, L. Wells. 2009. Mapping glycans onto specific N-linked glycosylation sites of Pyrus communis PGIP redefines the interface for EPG-PGIP interactions. J. Proteome Res. 8: 673-680. PMID:19072240

P.M. Angel, J.M. Lim, L. Wells, C. Bergmann, R. Orlando. 2007. A potential pitfall in 18O-based N-linked glycosylate site mapping. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 21: 674-682. PMID:17279607

D.A. Joubert, I. Kars, L. Wagemakers, C. Bergmann, G. Kemp, M.A. Vivier, J.A.L. Van. 2007. A polygalaturonase inhibiting protein from grapevine reduces the sumptoms of th endopolygalacturonase BcaPG2 from Botrytis cinerea in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves without any evidence for in vitro interaction. Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact. 20: 392-402. PMID:17427809

B.D. Woosley, M. Xie, L. Wells., R. Orlando, D. Garrison, D. King, C. Bergmann. 2006. Comprehensive glycan analysis of recombinant Aspergillus niger-endo-polygalacturonase C. Anal. Biochem. 354: 43-53. PMID:16697346

D.A. Joubert, A.R. Slaughter, G. Kemp, J.V. Becker, G.H. Krooshoff, C. Bergmann, J. Benen, I.S. Pretorius, M.A. Vivier. 2006. The grapevine polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (VvPGIP1) reduces Botrytis cinerea susceptability in transgenic tobacco and differentially inhibits fungal polygalacturonases. Transgenic Res. 15: 687-702.

B.D. Woosley, Y.H. Kim, V.S. Kumar, L. Wells, D. King, R. Poe, R. Orlando, C. Bergmann. 2006. Complete glycan analysis of recombinant Aspergillus niger endo-polygalacturonase A. Carbohydr. Res. 341: 2370-2378. PMID:16854399

M. Xie, G.H. Krooshof, J.A. Atwood, J.A.E. Benen, C. Bergmann, R. Orlando. 2005. Post-translational modifications of recombinant B. cinerea EPG 6. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 19: 3389-3397. PMID:16259040

G. Kemp, L. Stanton, C.W. Bergmann, R.P. Clay, A. Darvill, P. Albersheim. 2004. Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins can function as activators of polygalacturonase. Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact. 17: 888-894.

Q. Qin, C.W. Bergmann, J.K.C. Rose, M. Saladie, V.S. Kumar, P. Albersheim, A.G. Darvill, W.S. York. 2003. Characterization of a tomato protein that inhibits a xyloglucan-specific endoglucanase. Plant J. 34: 327-338. PMID:12713539

R.R. Balandran-Quintana, A.M. Mendoza-Wilson, C.W. Bergmann, I. Vargas-Arispuro, M.A. Martinez-Tellez. 2002. Effect of pectic oligomers on physiological responses of chilling injury in discs excised from zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.). Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 290: 577-584.

M.E. Warren, H.C.M. Kester, J. Benen, J. Colangelo, J. Visser, C. Bergmann, R. Orlando. 2002. Studies on the glycosylation of wild-type and mutant forms of Aspergillus niger pectin methylesterase. Carbohydr. Res. 337: 803-812. PMID:11996833

D. King, C. Bergmann, R. Orlando, J.A.E. Bensen, H.C.M. Kester, J. Visser. 2002. Use of amide exchange-mass spectrometry to study conformational changes within the endopolygalacturonase II/homogalacturonan/polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein system. Biochemistry 41: 10225-10233. PMID:12162737

D. King, M. Lumpkin, C. Bergmann, R. Orlando. 2002. Studying protein-carbohydrate interactions by amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun. Mass. Spectrom. 16: 1569-1574. PMID:12203249

J.M. Blumer, R.P. Clay, C.W. Bergmann, P. Albersheim, A. Darvill. 2000. Temporal and spatial expression of pectin methylesterase in ripening tomato fruit and its correlation to the degree of pectin esterification in exopericarp cell walls. Can J. Bot. 78: 607-618.

H.U. Stotz, J. Bishop, C.W. Bergmann, M. Koch, P. Albersheim, A.G. Darvill, J.M. Labavitch. 2000. Evidence for divergent selection of amino acid sites in the evolution of fungal polygalacturonases and their plant inhibitors. Physiol. Mol. Plant Pathol. 56: 117-130.

H.C.M. Kester, J.A.E. Benen, J. Visser, M.E. Warren, R. Orlando, C. Bergmann. 2000. Tandem mass spectrometric analysis of Aspergillus niger pectin methylesterase: mode of action on fully methylesterified oligogalacturonates. Biochem. J. 346: 469-474. PMID:10677368

J. Colangelo, V. Licon, J. Benen, C. Bergmann, R. Orlando. 1999. Characterization of the glycosylation of recombinant endopolygalacturonase I from Aspergillus niger. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 13: 1448-1453. PMID:10407337

B.J. Cook, R.P. Clay, C.W. Bergmann, P. Albersheim, A.G. Darvill. 1999. Fungal polygalacturonase exhibit different substrate degradation patterns and differ in their susceptibilities to polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins. Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact. 12: 703-711. PMID:10432636

J. Colangelo, V. Licon, J. Benen, J. Visser, C. Bergmann, R. Orlando. 1999. Characterization of the N-linked glycosylation site of recombinant pectate lyase. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 13: 2382-2387. PMID:10567938

R.P. Clay, C.W. Bergmann, M.S. Fuller. 1997. Isolation and characterization of an endopolygalacturonase from Cochliobolus sativus and a cytological study of fungal penetration of barley. Phytopathology 87: 1148-1159. PMID:18945012

Y. Yang, C. Bergmann, J. Benen, R. Orlando. 1997. Identification of the glycosylation site and glycan structures of recombinant endopolygalacturonase II by mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 11: 1257-1262. PMID:9276972

P. Azadi, M.A. O'Neill, C. Bergmann, A.G. Darvill, P. Albersheim. 1995. The backbone of the pectic polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan I is fragmented by an endohydrolase and an endolyase. Glycobiology 5: 783-789. PMID:8720076

A. Darvill, C. Bergmann, F. Cervone, G. De, K.-S. Ham, M.D. Spiro, W.S. York, P. Albersheim. 1995. Oligosaccharins involved in plant growth and host-pathogen interactions. Biochem. Soc. Symp. 60: 89-94. PMID:7639795

C. Bergmann, Y. Ito, D. Singer, P. Albersheim, A. Darvill, N. Benhamou, L. Nuss, G. Salvi, F. Cervone, G. De Lorenzo. 1994. Polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein accumulates in Phaseolus vulgaris L. in response to wounding, elicitors, and fungal infection. Plant J. 5: 625-634.

C. Caprari, C. Bergmann, Q. Migheli, G. Salvi, P. Albersheim, A. Darvill, F. Cervone, G. De Lorenzo. 1993. Fusarium moniliforme secretes four endopolygalacturonases derived from a single gene product. Physiol. Mol. Plant Pathol. 43: 453-462.

C. Caprari, A. Richter, C. Bergmann, S. Lo Cicero, G. Salvi, F. Cervone, G. De Lorenzo. 1993. Cloning and characterization of a gene encoding the endopolygalacturonase of Fusarium moniliforme. Mycol. Res. 97: 497-505.

A. Darvill, C. Augur, C. Bergmann, R.W. Carlson, J.-J. Cheong, S. Eberhard, M.G. Hahn, V.-M. Lo, V. Marfa, B. Meyer, D. Mohnen, M.A. O'Neill, M.D. Spiro, H. van Halbeek, W.S. York, P. Albersheim. 1992. Oligosaccharins - oligosaccharides that regulate growth, development and defense reponses in plants. Glycobiology 2: 181-198.

P. Toubart, L. Daroda, A. Desiderio, G. Salvi, F. Cervone, G. De Lorenzo, C. Bergmann, A.G. Darvill, P. Albersheim. 1992. Cloning and characterization of the gene encoding the endopolygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) of Phaseolus vulgaris L. Plant J. 2: 367-373.

Book Chapters

C.W. Bergmann, L. Stanton, D. King, R.P. Clay, G. Kemp, R. Orlando, A. Darvill, P. Albersheim. 2003. Recent observations on the specificity and structural conformation of the polygalacturonase-polygalacturonase inhibiting protein system. In: Advances in Pectin and Pectinase Research (F. Voragen, H. Schols, and R. Visser, eds.), pp. 277-291. Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands.

F. Cote, K.-S. Ham, M.G. Hahn, C.W. Bergmann. 1998. Oligosaccharide elicitors in host-pathogen interactions: generation, perception, and signal transduction. In: Cellular Biochemistry- Plant-Microbe Interactions, Vol. 29 (B.B. Biswas and H. Das, eds.), pp. 385-432. New York, Plenum Publishing Corp.

C.W. Bergmann, B.J. Cook, A.G. Darvill, P. Albersheim, D. Bellincampi, C. Caprari. 1996. The effects of glycosylation of endopolygalacturonases and polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins on the production of oligogalacturonides. In: Pectins and Pectinases - Proceedings of a Conference (J. Visser, ed.), pp. 275-282. Elsevier Publishers, Amsterdam.

R.P. Clay, C.W. Bergmann, M.S. Fuller. 1996. Enzyme-mediated substrate immunolocalization of polygalacturonic acid within barley epidermal cell walls utilizing endopolygalacturonase of Cochliobolus sativus and a monoclonal antibody specific for the enzyme. In: Pectins and Pectinases - Proceedings of a Conference (J. Visser, ed.), pp. 731-738 . Elsevier Publishers, Amsterdam.

M.G. Hahn, A. Darvill, P. Albersheim, C. Bergmann, J.-J. Cheong, A. Koller, V.-M. Lo.. 1992. Purification and characterization of oligosaccharide elicitors of phytoalexin accumulation. In: Molecular Plant Pathology - A Practical Approach, Vol. 2 (S. Gurr, M. McPherson, and D.J. Bowles, eds.), pp. 103-147 . IRL Press.

F. Cervone, G. De Lorenzo, G. Salvi, C. Bergmann, Y. Ito, M.G. Hahn, A. Darvill, P. Albersheim. 1989. Release of phytoalexin elicitor-active oligogalacturonides by microbial pectic enzymes. In: Signal Molecules in Plants and Plant-Microbe Interactions, NATO/ASI Series, Vol. H36 (B.J.J. Lugtenberg, ed.), pp. 85-89. Springer-Verlag, Berlin-Heidelberg.

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